Hello everyone, so next topic we would be discussing is my favorite, which is the perform integrated change control process, and why I call this as my favorite among this knowledge area, not in the entire 49 processes, because you will get tons of questions on this, tons of questions. When I say tons of questions, you can say I do not have a fixed number but still close to 20 questions, I would say. Perform integrated change control, so what is this process all about? This is the process, which asses and decide upon all changes. What you will do when there is a change in question, what is the process of doing or dealing with that change request? First, the process group is monitoring and control, so this is like the second process in this particular process group.
The first we did the monitor and control project work and this is the second one. The integrated portion of the name is due to its bringing together all other monitoring and controlling processes. So why we have given the name “integrated”? Why the PMI has given this word “integrated”? First, it’s part of integration management knowledge area, secondly the change of course can come from anywhere, it can come from scope, it and can come from time, it can be cost related change, and it could be quality related change, so change request can come from anywhere. You might have an impact on those changes on many of the different factors, so what is the process? So first of all whenever there is a change request, whenever the customer asked for a change request, you start with the preliminary impact analysis. So the PM does the preliminary impact analysis, finds out, how much it should impact and things like at a very high and a basic level. Once that is done and that information is given to the customer, they are okay, they are fine, then it goes to the CCB stage, where a change control board, a group of folks, a group of people, of course, customer and sponsor can be part of it, will decide upon those changes which probably they will do a detailed impact analysis and more importantly on the triple constraint triangle; the Scope, Cost and time.
Finally based upon that they will take a decision, whether to approve or reject the change, and finally once the decision is taken you will move ahead and update your change log and some of the documents if required, and probably at the same time you probably communicate to the requester of that change and other stakeholders as well, whatever the decision is. So the decisions, approval for change requests occurs in this process; so approval or I would say not just approval, I would also say the rejections can also take place. Right? So the word is the decision over here, that decision would be taken. Impact analysis, the project impact of the change request is assessed before the approval. So we live in some kind of society, I would say in some kind of environment where many folks have things like customer is God, Whatever customer is asking we have to do it, but this is not really true. We should say No to the customer if you think it is not possible.
So again make sure to do the impact analysis, assess it and give it to the customer, if everything is good, if they are willing to pay more and you know or wait for more time, then yes, of course approve it. And of course if you have the bandwidth. Then CCB, it’s a change Control Board might be used to review the change request with authority to make approvals. Varying among organization. So first of all I’ve written that it might be used, not all the organizations have CCB, if you have and if they have the power depends upon what type of organization you are. Okay so this is an important slide, I want to make sure that you understand the process flow, so before I go into the ITTO’s which to be honest are not that important, This is important based upon the understanding of how the things are done. So once this process flow is done and the another one is also the difference between the configuration management and change management, so that these two are very important topics and we will discuss in much more detail. So how this process works, first of all we identify, so change request is identified, so assume that there is a customer who reached out to you and asked for a change request, so you will say that okay, then go ahead and document that, so first is the documentation process which is in the form of change control form .
So first you identify, once it is identified, the next step is to document it, which is document the Change request (CR) through the change request form. So you use the CCF to document that change request, once it is documented then you will do the impact analysis as per the triple constraint triangle. Remember scope cost and time, which says that one change, one particular change might result into at least the other two. What I mean by that is, for example if it’s a scope related change, the customer wants to add more features to their product. So what impact it will have on the other two legs? What impact it will have on the cost? What impact it will have on the time? Similarly I can say that okay, if you want to add more features, yes it is possible, but it will cost you more, if you want to make sure that it is done within that time frame which you have already given to us because I might have to add more resources, I might have to do some kind of knowledge transfer, if I’m adding more resources then it may increase the cost aspect. Similarly, if customer says that I don’t care about the time, you can extend your time line but I want to make sure that the cost remains intact.
So I said okay we can probably think around those challenges as well. So again the “CCB” the change Control Board would make sure they will do the impact analysis, they will review it and based upon that they will take a decision to approve or reject that change. So first, the preliminary impact analysis is actually done by the project manager or the team and then it is the detailed impact analysis which is actually done by the CCB. Therefore, once you have reviewed then the next step is to track. Just make sure that first of all you implement that change request and once it is implemented you as a project manager need to make sure that you properly monitor and control it. Now you can understand why this approve change request from this process actually went and became an input to the monitor and control project work. And once everything is good you probably have to communicate also to the requester of that change, once you have to communicate you might also have to update that change log, not might but you actually have to update the change log.
So change log is both like a document which says, that okay this was the change which was requested by this person on this date and time and this was the decision. In addition, probably you might have some impact analysis information. It again depends from organization to organization. Okay remember this change control process; the change process flow is very important, so make sure you know you make good notes. You have a clear understanding of this particular topic and again do not forget to practice questions on the website, you will get a lot of questions as I know that this is an important concept, I have given many questions on the website specifically talking about the change control process. The website, I am pretty sure that you are familiar with the website name, its www.eduhubspot.
com. Okay so now let’s discuss the ITTO’s of this process, I’m not saying ITTO’s are not important, they are equally important but basically the process flow, the understanding, the concept building is very important for this process. So first, we will start with the project management plan, which will have change, configuration, scope baseline, schedule and cost, so the triple constraint pieces and of course the change in configuration management plan are part of the project management plan. As far as the document is concerned, the basis of estimates, requirement traceability matrix and risk report are also part of it. Work performance report, you want to make sure that, if you remember status report is one of the example of work performance report. If you see closely, if there is any change request, you can see that, there is an option where it says, okay change request-Yes, what is the decision ,Approved-No, what was impact , similarly a very high level information might be given in the work performance report, so that’s why you are seeing that as an input.
Of course you will have a change request, until and unless you have a change request why would you even do this process. So this is like one of the most important process for this. EEF and OPA are the common ones. So let’s discuss these inputs in detail but prior to discussing these inputs and detail, I want to make sure that you understand the difference between configuration and change management. So lot of people actually reached out to me to explain in detail the difference between configuration management and the change management. I try to explain in a pretty simple language, just think of an example where you want to manufacture a phone, if you want to manufacture a phone then you probably might talk about the features of that.
So you probably start planning that I want to manufacture this phone and the size of that phone, like the camera is actually five megapixel, but then after a while, you said that five megapixel is pretty less, I should move into 12 megapixel. So you moved it to the 12 megapixel, so when you’re doing all of those things that is actually the configuration management. It says this is focus on change in this specification of the both a specification, of both deliverables as well as the processes. So what I am doing, I am talking about a change from 5 megapixel to 12 megapixel, so I’m actually talking about the specification of that phone, the feature of that phone. So that is configuration management for you. On the opposite side what change management is, it is more focused on identifying, documenting, approving or rejecting the changes to those documents. So it’s more of a process oriented and this is more where you are actually changing it, for example the same example of making the phone from 5 megapixel to 12 megapixel, what will be the impact, for example, will it cost me some ten thousand dollar extra budget. So all of those things.
Right? Any change where any baseline or any other information is affected, that’s more of a change management plan. So configuration management where you are really talking about the specifications and features, whereas change management is more like how you will do, what would be the impact analysis, are you approving it, what is the process behind it. In the change management you will also see three sub components: first is the identifying of the configuration item, what do you want to change? In this case it was the camera, so camera would be a perfect example in the identify configuration item piece. Then once you identify, next is about record and report the configuration item status, again your stakeholders are all about what is the status? How much have you done? Will it take two months, three months, two days, five days? So again you have to record that and again you have to report.
It’s your job as a project manager to communicate effectively to these stakeholders and specifically to the person who has actually requested that change. So first, you identify, then you record and finally you do the verification on the order. You want to make sure that if you talked about 12 megapixels did you do it to 12, or did you do to 11 or did you do to 10? You as a project manager have to audit that, you have to monitor it. So first is identify record and communicate and finally, you have to verify and audit as well. So let’s talk about the inputs in much more detail, so first in the project management plan we have the change management plan and the configuration management plan. As I explained before, configuration management plan is all about the specification, change management plan on the other hand it’s like how much it will impact, what is the approval or rejection, what is the process behind it.
Then you will get as I told you, it’s all about the triple constraint triangle, so you will see the scope baseline, scheduled baseline, and the cost placement as an input, as a part of the project management plan. As far as documents are concerned, we’ll get the basis of estimate, something which we would be discussing in much more detail in the cost management knowledge area, requirements traceability matrix like how one requirement is traced back to the origin or how it meets the business objectives, how it meets the test cases. All those things, Right? They are one of the biggest contributors to the change request, so you want to make sure that as an input. Risk report, of course changes are risky, your project might be delayed by two months or six months or a year that is not good, Right? You don’t want to do that, but you want to make sure that you are accounting for all of those risk aspect, so that’s an input here. Work performance report, it is a common output as I discussed, Work performance data gets converted into information, information gets converted into the reports.
So an example of report would be like a status report, where you are mentioning about the change request and the status, you will get the change request as an input. This is where you’re working on, so like my change request was change the camera specification from 5 megapixel to 12 megapixel, so that was my change request, so that is something which we are talking about . We have the EEF and the OPA, the enterprise environmental factors and the organizational processes assets. Tools and technique, in tools and techniques we always have an expert judgment as a common tool, we need an expert who can tell us what the process is, like the way I explained you that’s how a change control process might happen in your company or based upon organization to organization you might change, you might tweak a little bit as well. So that’s expert judgement, you need somebody’s help who can help you to explain the process and follow the process accordingly.
As far as the data analysis is concerned, this is further divided into alternative analysis and the cost benefit analysis. So alternative analysis, we’ll be discussing in resource, thinking about all the alternatives, if you issued a change request and then you want to think about all the alternatives which can save you time, which can save you money, and basically you have a cost-benefit analysis, doing a comparison of making sure that benefit should always be greater than the cost. That is your end goal; you want to do that. As far as decision-making is concerned we already talked about the voting like at a very high level in detail level, we talked in the scope management knowledge area but voting about majority or unanimity, those are voting techniques. We also have the autocratic decision-making, which means a one person is taking the decisions for others. This happens when the project is very important or you have a very you know powerful stakeholders, who want to make sure that his or her things are being done on time, so that is autocratic.
Multi-criteria decision analysis, we will be discussing this in detail in the quality management but as the name says it says multi-criteria decision so in order to take a decision there could be multiple criteria’s, for example, why did you even select this course, what was the reason behind it, that’s an example of multiple criteria. You might have felt that this is good, this is something which I could relate to more, and this is a something which will make sure, which is something which is recommended by my friends. All of those are good, so these are the multiple criteria’s which made sure that you take this course. Right. Similarly, for the change request process you need the multi-criteria decision analysis as well. Of course you will have the meetings every time and the change control tools, both manual and automatic tools. So not just the process, which I explained, that is more like a manual but we have also automated tools, which are actually used to take care of the change request. I would actually talk about like a very pretty basic rule which all of you might have used; Microsoft Word.
Over there is an option to track the changes, so track change, this is one of the options. So it’s actually one of the good way to track changes, that’s good, that’s a change control tool. I don’t know if you are from IT world you might know about the tool “JIRA” .I have heavily used JIRA in the past and JIRA was one of the tools where you can actually track changes as well. As far as the outputs is concerned, first we have the approved change request , basically it should not be approve, to be honest, I believe it should be like some kind of decision, it could be approved as well as you know it could be rejected. So it depends based upon whatever the decision would be. The first thing you will probably do is update the change control log and similarly you will update the project management plan. One thing you need to keep in mind is that this process which I explained is formally done only after your baseline is established.
Until and unless your baseline is established, you can probably tweak around, you can ask customer, can ask around for changes, and all those things can happen, but once your baseline is established you want to make sure that you follow this proper process. For exam perspective just think that you should always do the process like go through the CCB process which I explained, you will get a lot of questions and you want to make sure you do it correctly. Okay let’s do a quick revision, so focus on assessing the impact and approving, rejecting the change request. Focus on the triple constraint triangle that is very important. So triple constraint triangle scope, cost, time. One leg would have at least effect on the other one of the other two. Know that the change maybe how the work is being done or what work is being done. So definitely, you can talk about the preventive actions you are taking or the corrective actions, so that is important. Know that all monitor and control process are brought together by the integration, so the word integration it’s specifically given, why? Because change can come from anywhere and you want to make sure you are controlling it, you’re monitoring it, and you are doing the proper process.
Then irrespective of the decision, the change log will always be updated so whether you are approving it or you are rejecting it, this is an important topic, which you need to make sure..